My dissertation presents a Kantian theory of punishment that joins Kant’s ideal theory of freedom with a nonideal theory developed by means of his general ideas of human nature. My theory envisions rightful relations between juridically vulnerable, interacting people in a way that accounts for the contingencies and historical contexts of our embodied, social human lives. The focus of the analysis is punishment of crimes involving bodily wrongdoing and the result includes a phenomenological account of legal subjects and a framework for institutional prison reform in the U.S. context.